Spread Peace

Friday, November 6, 2015


`ABBÁS EFFENDI (A.H. 1260–1340 [1844–1921 C.E.]): Known as `Abdu'l-Bahá, he is the eldest son of Mírzá Husayn-`Alí Núrí, known as Bahá'u'lláh. The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá took place on the night of the fifth of Jamádíyu'l-Avval of the year A.H. 1260, corresponding to 1844 C.E., in the Arab neighborhood of Tehran in the personal residence of Bahá'u'lláh.[5] His mother was the first wife of Bahá'u'lláh, known as Navvábih and titled Ummu'l-Ká'inát; `Abbás Effendi himself was styled the Most Great Branch.

From his first wife, namely, Navvábih, another son was also born to Bahá'u'lláh, named Mírzá Mihdí and designated the Purest Branch. He passed away in Acre during the lifetime of his Father, Bahá'u'lláh, in A.H. 1286 [1870 C.E.] at the age of nineteen.[6]
The second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, who was known or titled Mahd-`Ulyá, bore Bahá'u'lláh three sons: first, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, titled the Greater Branch; second, Mírzá Badí`u'lláh; and third, Mírzá Ḑíyá'u'lláh.[7] After the passing of their father, a fierce disagreement took place among these three brothers and their fourth brother, `Abbás Effendi, over the matter of successorship. The followers of `Abbás Effendi were called Thábitín [the steadfast] and the partisans of the other three brothers Náqiḍín [the Covenant-breakers].

The third wife of Bahá'u'lláh, known as Gawhar Khánum, was commonly referred to as the Haram-i-Káshí [the Káshí wife]. She bore Bahá'u'lláh a daughter named Furúghíyyih.
In mid-1908, when a revolt took place in the Ottoman Empire and Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamíd was dismissed from the throne, all prisoners and exiles other than common-law criminals were freed, including `Abbás Effendi, who during Ramaḍán A.H. 1328 (1910 C.E.) left the city of Acre and began traveling to various parts [of the world]. He first went to Egypt, from there to Switzerland, and thence to London and Paris, returning to Egypt. From there, at the beginning of the year 1912 C.E., he journeyed to North America, arriving in New York in the middle of the year. After traveling and speaking in many North American cities, he returned at the end of that same year to Europe, arriving on 14 December in Liverpool. From there, in 1913, he traveled to many other European countries, including Germany, Austria, and Hungary, and by the middle of the year returned to Egypt and from there went to Haifa. From that date forward he selected Haifa as opposed to Acre as his headquarters. In sum, the travels of `Abdu'l-Bahá, which began at Ramadán A.H. 1329 [1911 C.E.] when he first went from Palestine to Egypt and then to Europe and America, until Muharram A.H. 1332 [December 1913 C.E.] when he returned to Palestine took a total of two years, three months, and some days. The passing of `Abbás Effendi took place in Haifa on 27 Rabi`u'l-Avval A.H. 1340, corresponding to 28 November 1921 C.E., at the age of seventy-eight according to solar reckoning and eighty based on lunar years. He was interred next to the resting place of the Báb on Mount Carmel overlooking the city of Haifa.[8]

After the passing of `Abbás Effendi — as both his sons had passed away in childhood, and he was not survived by a male descendant — his successor in leading the Bahá'ís in accordance with his own Will and Testament was a grandson, Shoghi Effendi, a son of Ḑiyá'íyyih Khánum, daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá and the wife of Áqá Mírzá Hádí, son of Áqá Siyyid Husayn, the son of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim (who was a brother-in-law of the Báb). Shoghi Effendi was a graduate of Oxford University in England.[9] He was born in A.H. 1314 [1897 C.E.]. At the time of `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing he was still at Oxford. His family urgently requested him to return at once to Haifa, but due to distance he arrived a month after `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing. Therefore, if we have correctly recorded the date of his birth, at present — that is, Esfand of 1327 Sh. [Islamic solar year; March 1949], he must be fifty-four years old [fifty-two solar years]. source

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